Ages: 5 through 10 years of age
Time: 15 to 30 minutes
The TOPAS is helpful in identifying children, ages 5 through 10, who have problems in phonological awareness. It has four subtests (Rhyming, Incomplete Words, Sound Sequencing, and Sound Deletion) that measure three areas of phonological awareness: sound comparison, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The TOPAS is untimed, requires approximately 15-30 minutes to administer, and is administered individually.
THE TOPAS IS A WELL STANDARDIZED, NORM-REFERENCED INSTRUMENT. The TOPAS was normed on a national sample of 926 children. The demographic characteristics of the sample were matched to those of the United States according to the updated 2001 census. The normative sample was stratified on the basis of age, gender, race, ethnic group membership, and geographic location.
THE TOPAS PROVIDES A VARIETY OF SCORES. Percentile ranks, age equivalents, standard scores, and a composite score are provided. These performance indices facilitate test interpretation, including conducting discrepancy analyses between TOPAS subtests.
THE TOPAS IS RELIABLE. The reliability coefficients for the test are high, ranging from .87 to .97. Average reliability coefficients range from .91 to .96 and all averaged coefficients for the composites exceed .90. Test/retest studies show that the TOPAS is stable over time.
THE TOPAS HAS WELL DOCUMENTED VALIDITY. A variety of validity studies attest to construct-identification, content-description, and criterion-predictive validity. The test's relationship to the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Diagnostic Achievement Battery-Third Edition, Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test-Second Edition, Iowa Test of Basic Skills, California Achievement Tests-Fifth Edition, Test of Early Reading Ability-Second Edition, Wechsler Preschool Primary Scales of Intelligence-Revised, and the Test of Language Development-Primary: Third Edition has been established.
THE TOPAS IS NOT CULTURALLY BIASED. The possibility of gender and ethnic test bias was investigated. Most of the potentially biased items were eliminated from the final version of the test. Two items showing Differential Item Functioning remain, both have negligible effect sizes.
COMPLETE TOPAS KIT INCLUDES: Examiner's Manual, 25 Examiner Record Booklets, Block Kit, Block Kit Instructional Manual, and Audio CD, all in a sturdy storage box. (©2003)